LONGLISTED FOR THE NATIONAL BOOK AWARD • A searing reassessment of U.S. military policy in the Middle East over the past four decades from retired army colonel and New York Times bestselling author Andrew J. Bacevich From the end of World War II until 1980, virtually no American soldiers were killed in action while serving in the Greater Middle East. Since 1990, virtually no American soldiers have been killed in action anywhere else. What caused this shift? Andrew J. Bacevich, one of the country’s most respected voices on foreign affairs, offers an incisive critical history of this ongoing military enterprise—now more than thirty years old and with no end in sight. During the 1980s, Bacevich argues, a great transition occurred. As the Cold War wound down, the United States initiated a new conflict—a War for the Greater Middle East—that continues to the present day. The long twilight struggle with the Soviet Union had involved only occasional and sporadic fighting. But as this new war unfolded, hostilities became persistent. From the Balkans and East Africa to the Persian Gulf and Central Asia, U.S. forces embarked upon a seemingly endless series of campaigns across the Islamic world. Few achieved anything remotely like conclusive success. Instead, actions undertaken with expectations of promoting peace and stability produced just the opposite. As a consequence, phrases like “permanent war” and “open-ended war” have become part of everyday discourse. Connecting the dots in a way no other historian has done before, Bacevich weaves a compelling narrative out of episodes as varied as the Beirut bombing of 1983, the Mogadishu firefight of 1993, the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and the rise of ISIS in the present decade. Understanding what America’s costly military exertions have wrought requires seeing these seemingly discrete events as parts of a single war. It also requires identifying the errors of judgment made by political leaders in both parties an
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How did Western imperialism shape the developing world? In Imperialism and the Developing World, Atul Kohli tackles this question by analyzing British and American influence on Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America from the age of the British East India Company to the most recent U.S. war in Iraq. He argues that both Britain and the U.S. expanded to enhance their national economic prosperity, and shows how Anglo-American expansionism hurt economic development in poor parts of the world. To clarify the causes and consequences of modern imperialism, Kohli first explains that there are two kinds of empires and analyzes the dynamics of both. Imperialism can refer to a formal, colonial empire such as Britain in the 19th century or an informal empire, wielding significant influence but not territorial control, such as the U.S. in the 20th century. Kohli contends that both have repeatedly undermined the prospects of steady economic progress in the global periphery, though to different degrees. Time and again, the pursuit of their own national economic prosperity led Britain and the U.S. to expand into peripheral areas of the world. Limiting the sovereignty of other states-and poor and weak states on the periphery in particular-was the main method of imperialism. For the British and American empires, this tactic ensured that peripheral economies would stay open and accessible to Anglo-American economic interests. Loss of sovereignty, however, greatly hurt the life chances of people living in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America. As Kohli lays bare, sovereignty is an economic asset; it is a precondition for the emergence of states that can foster prosperous and inclusive industrial societies.
- Author : Christine Sylvester
- Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
- Release Date : 2019
- Genre : Collective memory
- Pages : 240
- ISBN : 9780190840556
"Curating and Re-Curating the American Wars in Vietnam and Iraq is about looking for war knowledge in unexpected places, such as war memorials, museum exhibitions, war cemeteries, and novels and memoirs. What one finds there can contradict the prescribed understandings of a particular war or, say, endorse the tendency to treat military personnel as heroes to be thanked. Especially when 'ordinary curators' display memories of their war experiences through the objects left at memorials and graves, or through the words they curate in war novels, the observer/reader gets a glimpse of actual lives lost, futures cut short and even some of the dull noncombat jobs military do in war zones. The main point is that war is a social institution and its experiences are plentiful and decentralized. Many scholars and other interested readers look for war in the decisions and movements of militaries and states, but this book's difference is that it focuses on how a variety of formal and informal war curators present the American wars in Vietnam and Iraq at a moment of American militarism"--
- Author : Hanns W. Maull
- Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
- Release Date : 2018-11
- Genre : Political Science
- Pages : 368
- ISBN : 9780198828945
This book takes a bird's-eye view of what has been happening with the international order over the last quarter century. Looking at a number of its components, such as the regional orders of Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, and international regimes dealing with nuclear weapons, climate change, and world trade, it maps the rise and decline of what is called the liberal international order, identifies causes of progress and failure, and draws thiscomparative analysis together in a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of the state and prospects of international order. Two chapters each are dedicated to analysing the two most important 'orderingpowers', the United States and the People's Republic of China, offering two different perspectives on the policies and strategies Washington and Beijing have pursued in the international order.
Since 9/11, why have we won smashing battlefield victories only to botch nearly everything that comes next? In the opening phases of war in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya, we mopped the floor with our enemies. But in short order, things went horribly wrong. We soon discovered we had no coherent plan to manage the "day after." The ensuing debacles had truly staggering consequences—many thousands of lives lost, trillions of dollars squandered, and the apparent discrediting of our foreign policy establishment. This helped set the stage for an extraordinary historical moment in which America's role in the world, along with our commitment to democracy at home and abroad, have become subject to growing doubt. With the benefit of hindsight, can we discern what went wrong? Why have we had such great difficulty planning for the aftermath of war? In The Day After, Brendan Gallagher—an Army lieutenant colonel with multiple combat tours to Iraq and Afghanistan, and a Princeton Ph.D.—seeks to tackle this vital question. Gallagher argues there is a tension between our desire to create a new democracy and our competing desire to pull out as soon as possible. Our leaders often strive to accomplish both to keep everyone happy. But by avoiding the tough underlying decisions, it fosters an incoherent strategy. This makes chaos more likely. The Day After draws on new interviews with dozens of civilian and military officials, ranging from US cabinet secretaries to four-star generals. It also sheds light on how, in Kosovo, we lowered our postwar aims to quietly achieve a surprising partial success. Striking at the heart of what went wrong in our recent wars, and what we should do about it, Gallagher asks whether we will learn from our mistakes, or provoke even more disasters? Human lives, money, elections, and America's place in the world may hinge on the answer.
- Author : Richard L. Russell
- Publisher : Routledge
- Release Date : 2007-05-07
- Genre : History
- Pages : 224
- ISBN : 9781134213887
This important new book explores the strategic reasons behind the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons as well as ballistic missile delivery systems in the Greater Middle East. It examines the uses and limitations of chemical weapons in regional combat, ballistic missile warfare and defenses, as well as Iran's drive for nuclear weapons and the likely regional reactions should Tehran acquire a nuclear weapons inventory. This book also discusses Chinese assistance to WMD and ballistic programs in the Greater Middle East. Finally, this book recommends policy options for American diplomacy to counter the challenges posed by WMD proliferation. This essential study prepares the ground for the challenges facing the international community. Richard Russell is a professor at the National Defense University's Near East-South Asia Center for Strategic Studies in Washington, DC. He also teaches at the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University. He previously served as a political-military analyst at the CIA.
At the height of the Cold War, the US sought to maintain power and influence in the Greater Middle East - the region from Morocco to India -in the context of a growing threat from Russia and the decline of British imperialism. This original and important study illuminates this tense period in international relations, offering many new insights into the global situation of the 1950s and 1960s. Roby Barrett casts fresh light on US foreign policy under Eisenhower and Kennedy, drawing on extensive research in archives and document collections from Kansas to Canberra and numerous interviews with key policy makers and observers from both the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations. He explores the application of the Cold War containment policy through economic development and security assistance, highlighting the fundamental similarities between the goals and application of foreign policy in the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations as well as the impact of British influence on the process. And in the process this book draws some unexpected conclusions, arguing that Eisenhower's policies were ultimately more successful than Kennedy's, and offers an important and revisionist contribution to our understanding of the Cold War and the Middle East -- Provided by the publisher.
- Author : Magnus Persson
- Publisher : Almqvist & Wiksell International
- Release Date : 1998
- Genre : Political Science
- Pages : 368
- ISBN : UOM:39015041617740
The United States took the initiative to the Northern Tier policy, to create a defense barrier along the southern border of the Soviet Union, and this policy later resulted in the Baghdad Pact. This study addresses Anglo-American relations in relation to the Northern Tier policy and the formulation phase of the Baghdad Pact from 1953 to 1955.
A hard-hitting assessment of Obama's current foreign policy and a sweeping look at the future of the Middle East The 2011 Arab Spring upended the status quo in the Middle East and poses new challenges for the United States. Here, Fawaz Gerges, one of the world's top Middle East scholars, delivers a full picture of US relations with the region. He reaches back to the post-World War II era to explain the issues that have challenged the Obama administration and examines the president's responses, from his negotiations with Israel and Palestine to his drawdown from Afghanistan and withdrawal from Iraq. Evaluating the president's engagement with the Arab Spring, his decision to order the death of Osama bin Laden, his intervention in Libya, his relations with Iran, and other key policy matters, Gerges highlights what must change in order to improve US outcomes in the region. Gerges' conclusion is sobering: the United States is near the end of its moment in the Middle East. The cynically realist policy it has employed since World War II-continued by the Obama administration--is at the root of current bitterness and mistrust, and it is time to remake American foreign policy.
- Author : Anonim
- Publisher : Best Books
- Release Date : 2002
- Genre : Reference
- Pages : 479
- ISBN : 0722200153
Books recommended for undergraduate and college libraries listed by Library of Congress Classification Numbers.
- Author : Congress
- Publisher : Government Printing Office
- Release Date :
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 231
- ISBN : 9876543210XXX
This anthology unites in one volume two studies of the Greater Middle East in global politics - each conceptual and empirical. First, it is a historical-comparative study of politics and societies in selected Greater Middle Eastern countries. Second, it is an empirical case study of states and societies of the Greater Middle East in global politics.
Averting Global War examines major regional disputes and conflicts throughout the world as they impact upon both American domestic and foreign policy. These include: The ongoing _war on terrorism_; NATO enlargement to Russian borders; US intervention in Iraq; US confrontation with Iran; the feud between Israel and the Palestinians; the widening _zone of conflict_ from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa; the global ramifications of North Korea_s nuclear program and China_s claims to Taiwan; Venezuela_s _Bolivarian Revolution_ and the _war on drugs_ in Latin America, the domestic socio-political effects of Latin American immigration upon the US. The book_s goal is to articulate an irenic American strategy intended to resolve, or at least transform, a number of these disputes and conflicts so as to prevent them from further _deepening_ or _widening__and to avert the real possibility of major power confrontation involving both clandestine and overt methods of warfare.
This book advances a critical analysis of U. S. Middle East policy and offers alternative perspectives. It highlights areas of policy shortcomings in the wake of ongoing global and domestic changes and draws attention to the need for a new and more plausible U. S. policy. The United States and the Middle East evaluates the roots and consequences of post-World War II diplomatic and military initiatives, including the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Palestinian question, United States relations with Iran following the Iranian revolution, Irangate, the reflagging of Kuwaiti tankers, and the war led by the United States against Iraq. The important roles of U. S. media and Middle East studies and education in influencing U. S. foreign policy are also emphasized. A concluding chapter focuses on the ongoing global restructuring and the U. S. quest for world leadership in the wake of the Persian Gulf War.
Bruce Kuniholm takes a regional perspective to focus on postwar diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece and efforts in these countries to maintain their independence from the Great Powers. Drawing on a wide variety of secondary sources, government documents, private papers, unpublished memoirs, and extensive interviews with key figures, he shows how the traditional struggle for power along the Northern Tier was a major factor in the origins and development of the Cold War between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Originally published in 1980. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
- Author : Tareq Y. Ismael
- Publisher : Syracuse University Press
- Release Date : 1986-10-01
- Genre : History
- Pages : 304
- ISBN : 081562381X
Mark: Another Architecture is a bi-monthly international trade journal featuring exceptional architecture projects. Launched eight years ago by the makers of Frame, Mark takes a radical and international approach to architecture, showcasing the best new work from every corner of the world. Viewing the magazine as a visual medium, Mark attempts to avoid jargon and academicism, opting instead for direct communication. Ever curious, Mark wants to uncover architects’ motivations and use them to inspire. We dare you to try and find an international architecture journal that fills more of its pages with interviews than Mark. Mark shines its spotlight on starchitects and new talent alike. Mark explores the boundaries of architecture and anticipates what's heating up around the next corner. What readers find in each issue of Mark: Notice Board Pinned to Mark’s Notice Board are eye-grabbing images and memos sighted on architects' drawing boards worldwide. Cross Section Cutting-edge articles whisk readers to the outer reaches of architecture and beyond. Perspective A theme section discussing the state of architecture in a specific city, region, or country. Long Section Here the reader finds articles on new buildings, portraits of architecture practices, and reports on fascinating phenomena from cosmic architecture to treetop living. Tools Concluding the magazine are reports from manufacturers and information about new building products.