- Author : United States
- Publisher : US House of Representatives
- Release Date : 2002
- Genre : Building failures
- Pages : 430
- ISBN : LOC:00100527509
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Investigates the causes of the collapse of Texas Tower No. 4, an offshore AF Radar Tower, which killed 28 men.
Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.
In this paper we present a model in which a systematic banking collapse is possible in a perfect foresight, general equilibrium context. Our aim is to determine con3itions under which a collapse will eventually occur and the timing of such a collapse. The collapse can occur endogenously, driven by market fundamentals. Alternatively, it can be caused by a mass hysteria which generates itself in reality. Vie also compare the assumptions and implications of our model to the observable phenomena of the 1930's.
In the present-day world order, political disintegration, the faltering of economic systems, the controversial yet dramatic consequences of global warming and pollution, and the spread of poverty and social disruption in Western countries have rendered ‘collapse’ one of the hottest topics in the humanities and social sciences. In the frenetic run for identifying the global causes and large-scale consequences of collapse, however, instances of crisis taking place at the micro-scale are not always explored by scholars addressing these issues in present and past societies, while the ‘voices’ of the marginal/non-élite subjects that might be the main victims of collapse are often silenced in ancient history and archaeology. Within this framework Collapse or Survival explores localized phenomena of crisis, unrest, and survival in the ancient Mediterranean with a focus on the first millennium BC. In a time span characterized by unprecedented high levels of dynamism, mobility, and social change throughout that region, the area selected for analysis represents a unique convergence point where states rise and fall, long-distance trade networks develop and disintegrate, and patterns of human mobility catalyze cultural change at different rates. The central Mediterranean also comprises a wealth of recently excavated and highly contextualized material evidence, casting new light on the agency of individuals and groups who endeavored to cope with crisis situations in different geographical and temporal settings. Contributors provide novel definitions of ‘collapse’ and reconsider notions of crisis and social change by taking a broader perspective that is not necessarily centred on élites. Individual chapters analyze how both high-status and non-élite social agents responded to socio-political rupture, unrest, depopulation, economic crisis, the disintegration of kinship systems, interruption in long-term trade networks, and destruction in war.
Taking the Soviet collapse - the most cataclysmic event of the recent past - as a case study, this text engages students in the exercise of historical analysis, interpretation and explanation. In exploring the question posed by the title, the author introduces and applies such organizing concepts as great power conflict, imperial decline, revolution, ethnic conflict, colonialism, economic development, totalitarian ideology, and transition to democracy in a most accessible way. Questions and controversies, and extracts from documentary and literary sources, anchor the text at key points. This book is intended for use in history and political science courses on the Soviet Union or more generally on the 20th century.
The paper discusses a model in which growth is a negative function of fiscal burden. Moreover, growth discontinuously switches from high to low as fiscal burden reaches a critical level. Growth collapse is associated with a Sudden Stop of capital inflows, real depreciation and a drop in output (driven by a fall in the output of nontradables)-all of which have occurred during recent financial crises in Emerging Markets. The monetary version of the model is employed to show that BOP crises could be a result of fiscal distortions. In particular, it is further argued that BOP crisis could be a justifiable central bank response to growth collapse, although realistic circumstances may make this response highly ineffective. An important policy implication of the model is that in order to avoid Sudden Stop crises, policymakers should aim at improving fiscal institutions. Lowering the fiscal deficit is highly effective in the medium term
1. General collapse information 2. Terms of construction and building design 3. Building construction: firefighting problems and structural hazards 4. Masonry wall collapse 5. Collapse dangers of parapet walls 6. Wood floor collapse 7. Sloping peak roof collapse 8. Timber truss roof collapse 9. Flat roof collapse 10. Lightweight steel roof and floor collapse 11. Lightweight wood truss collapse 12. Ceiling collapse 13. Stairway collapse 14. Fire escape dangers 15. Wood-frame building collapse 16. Collapse hazards of buildings under construction 17. Collapse caused by master stream operations 18. Search-and-rescue at a building collapse 19. Safety precautions prior to collapse 20. Why the World Trade Center Towers collapsed 21. High-rise building collapse 22. Post-fire analysis 23. Early floor collapse EPILOGUE: Are architects, engineers, and code-writing officials friends of the firefighters?.
From the author of Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive is a visionary study of the mysterious downfall of past civilizations. Now in a revised edition with a new afterword, Jared Diamond's Collapse uncovers the secret behind why some societies flourish, while others founder - and what this means for our future. What happened to the people who made the forlorn long-abandoned statues of Easter Island? What happened to the architects of the crumbling Maya pyramids? Will we go the same way, our skyscrapers one day standing derelict and overgrown like the temples at Angkor Wat? Bringing together new evidence from a startling range of sources and piecing together the myriad influences, from climate to culture, that make societies self-destruct, Jared Diamond's Collapse also shows how - unlike our ancestors - we can benefit from our knowledge of the past and learn to be survivors. 'A grand sweep from a master storyteller of the human race' - Daily Mail 'Riveting, superb, terrifying' - Observer 'Gripping ... the book fulfils its huge ambition, and Diamond is the only man who could have written it' - Economis 'This book shines like all Diamond's work' - Sunday Times
Human history, as written traditionally, leaves out the important ecological and climate context of historical events. But the capability to integrate the history of human beings with the natural history of the Earth now exists, and we are finding that human-environmental systems are intimately linked in ways we are only beginning to appreciate. In Sustainability or Collapse?, researchers from a range of scholarly disciplines develop an integrated human and environmental history over millennial, centennial, and decadal time scales and make projections for the future. The contributors focus on the human-environment interactions that have shaped historical forces since ancient times and discuss such key methodological issues as data quality. Topics highlighted include the political ecology of the Mayans; the effect of climate on the Roman Empire; the "revolutionary weather" of El Niño from 1788 to 1795; twentieth-century social, economic, and political forces in environmental change; scenarios for the future; and the accuracy of such past forecasts as The Limits to Growth.
Christopher Bennett argues that Yugoslavia's disintegration was not, contrary to accepted wisdom, the product of inherent and irrational ethnic animosities and centuries of strife - an interpretation which helps to vindicate the West's policy of inaction. He suggests that the decisive turning-point came in 1987, when a struggle was waged within the Serbian Communist party between adherents of a Serb nationalist ideology (embodied by Slobodan Milosevic) and those Yugoslavs who clung to the concept of a multinational state.
Mohamoud's work considers the underlying causes for the breakdown of the state across both time and space. Time is considered across the triple history - the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial processes. Space is used in the sense of taking the whole of Somalia as a unit of analysis. This approach enables the discovery of different structural crises over a period of time and examines these cumulative effects on the current upheavals in Somalia. Among the approaches, State Collapse and Post-Conflict Development in Africa covers the constraints in the harsh material environment; the subsistence pastoral mode of existence; the colonial intervention and the subsequent division of the land into five parts; Cold War geopolitics; decades of armed struggles; and the post-colonial crisis of governance. Dr. Abdulla (Awil) Mohamoud runs SAHAN, an academic research and consultancy agency, which conducts policy oriented research and fact finding missions abroad, mainly in Africa, undertakes evaluation and monitoring activities, provides training and offers advisory services on integration and multi-cultural issues. He holds an MA degree from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, and earned his PhD at the University of Amsterdam. Mohamoud has served regularly as an election observer in UN, EU, Council of Europe and OSCE missions to conflict and war-torn societies (to East-Timor, Kosovo, Nigeria, Serbia, and Zimbabwe).
Efforts to uncover the explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae and to understand all of their associated phenomena have been ongoing for nearly four decades. Despite this, our theoretical understanding of these cosmic events remains limited; two- and three-dimensional modeling of these events is in its infancy. Most of the modeling efforts over the past four decades have, by necessity, been constrained to spherical symmetry, with the first two-dimensional, albeit simplified, models appearing only during the last decade. Simulations to understand the complex interplay between the turbulent stellar core fluid flow, its magnetic fields, the neutrinos produced in and emanating from the proto-neutron star, the stellar core rotation, and the strong gravitational fields have yet to be performed. Only subsets of these fundamental ingredients have been included in the models thus far, often with approximation.The purpose of this volume is to identify the outstanding issues that remain in order to come to a complete understanding of these important astrophysical events. As the book focuses on open issues rather than the current state of the art in the field ? although the latter will certainly be discussed ? it will remain relevant for some time.