In the beginning, North America was Indian country. But only in the beginning. After the opening act of the great national drama, Native Americans yielded to the westward rush of European settlers. Or so the story usually goes. Yet, for three centuries after Columbus, Native people controlled most of eastern North America and profoundly shaped its destiny. In Facing East from Indian Country, Daniel K. Richter keeps Native people center-stage throughout the story of the origins of the United States. Viewed from Indian country, the sixteenth century was an era in which Native people discovered Europeans and struggled to make sense of a new world. Well into the seventeenth century, the most profound challenges to Indian life came less from the arrival of a relative handful of European colonists than from the biological, economic, and environmental forces the newcomers unleashed. Drawing upon their own traditions, Indian communities reinvented themselves and carved out a place in a world dominated by transatlantic European empires. In 1776, however, when some of Britain's colonists rebelled against that imperial world, they overturned the system that had made Euro-American and Native coexistence possible. Eastern North America only ceased to be an Indian country because the revolutionaries denied the continent's first peoples a place in the nation they were creating. In rediscovering early America as Indian country, Richter employs the historian's craft to challenge cherished assumptions about times and places we thought we knew well, revealing Native American experiences at the core of the nation's birth and identity.
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A revealing saga detailing the economic, familial, and social bonds forged by Indian trader George Galphin in the early American South A native of Ireland, George Galphin arrived in South Carolina in 1737 and quickly emerged as one of the most proficient deerskin traders in the South. This was due in large part to his marriage to Metawney, a Creek Indian woman from the town of Coweta, who incorporated Galphin into her family and clan, allowing him to establish one of the most profitable merchant companies in North America. As part of his trade operations, Galphin cemented connections with Indigenous and European peoples across the South, while simultaneously securing links to merchants and traders in the British Empire, continental Europe, and beyond. In George Galphin's Intimate Empire: The Creek Indians, Family, and Colonialism in Early America, Bryan C. Rindfleisch presents a complex narrative about eighteenth-century cross-cultural relationships. Reconstructing the multilayered bonds forged by Galphin and challenging scholarly understandings of life in the Native South, the American South more broadly, and the Atlantic World, Rindfleisch looks simultaneously at familial, cultural, political, geographical, and commercial ties--examining how eighteenth-century people organized their world, both mentally and physically. He demonstrates how Galphin's importance emerged through the people with whom he bonded. At their most intimate, Galphin's multilayered relationships revolved around the Creek, Anglo-French, and African children who comprised his North American family, as well as family and friends on the other side of the Atlantic. Through extensive research in primary sources, Rindfleisch reconstructs an expansive imperial world that stretches across the American South and reaches into London and includes Indians, Europeans, and Africans who were intimately interconnected and mutually dependent. As a whole, George Galphin's Intimate Empire provides critical insigh
Since Perry Miller's 1940 essay on the connection between Puritan theology and Transcendentalism, "From Edwards to Emerson," there has been a dominant model for thinking about the relationship between American religion and nature. According to Miller, Emerson and his fellow New England elites were the only ones during the antebellum period to turn to nature for a direct, unmediated access to spirituality; this was part of their protest against the orthodoxy of Protestantism. We would, however, misunderstand the past if we forgot that New England Transcendentalists, as important as they are to American intellectual history, were an elite minority. There were other religious groups who also turned to the field and stream, the stone and the tree, in their everyday religious practice and their theology. Evangelical Christianity was the popular religion of antebellum America. During this period, evangelical relationships to the material world, and to nature at large, were closer to Catholicism than one might expect. Brett Malcolm Grainger makes two important arguments in this book: (1) early republic Evangelicals represent an important, non-derivative, and popular strand of American religious engagement with nature, a story often ignored while focusing on Emerson and Thoreau; and (2) the everyday religion of antebellum American Evangelicals shows us that the Catholic-Protestant divide over real presence needs to be reconsidered. Evangelical enchantment can be seen in field sermons, camp meetings, water cures, outdoor baptisms, and mesmerism. Grainger sheds light on a major religious movement that swept across antebellum America from Virginia, Kentucky, and Appalachia to Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and upstate New York.--
These exciting and unique author profiles are essential to your holdings because sketches are entirely revised and up-to-date, and completely replace the original Contemporary Authors entries. A softcover cumulative index is published twice per year (included in subscription).
Representations of first contact—the first meetings of European explorers and Native Americans—have always had a central place in our nation’s historical and visual record. They have also had a key role in shaping and interpreting that record. In Framing First Contact author Kate Elliott looks at paintings by artists from George Catlin to Charles M. Russell and explores what first contact images tell us about the process of constructing national myths—and how those myths acquired different meanings at different points in our nation’s history. First contact images, with their focus on beginnings rather than conclusive action or determined outcomes, might depict historical events in a variety of ways. Elliott argues that nineteenth-century artists, responding to the ambiguity and indeterminacy of the subject, used the visualized space between cultures meeting for the first time to address critical contemporary questions and anxieties. Taking works from the 1840s through the 1910s as case studies—paintings by Robert W. Weir, Thomas Moran, and Albert Bierstadt, along with Catlin and Russell—Elliott shows how many first contact representations, especially those commissioned and conceived as official history, speak blatantly of conquest, racial superiority, and imperialism. Yet others communicate more nuanced messages that might surprise contemporary viewers. Elliott suggests it was the very openness of the subject of first contact that allowed artists, consciously or not, to speak of contemporary issues beyond imperialism and conquest. Uncovering those issues, Framing First Contact forces us to think about why we tell the stories we do, and why those stories matter.
The dramatic story of the United States’ destruction of a free and independent community of fugitive slaves in Spanish Florida In the aftermath of the War of 1812, Major General Andrew Jackson ordered a joint United States army-navy expedition into Spanish Florida to destroy a free and independent community of fugitive slaves. The result was the Battle of Negro Fort, a brutal conflict among hundreds of American troops, Indian warriors, and black rebels that culminated in the death or re-enslavement of nearly all of the fort’s inhabitants. By eliminating this refuge for fugitive slaves, the United States government closed an escape valve that African Americans had utilized for generations. At the same time, it intensified the subjugation of southern Native Americans, including the Creeks, Choctaws, and Seminoles. Still, the battle was significant for another reason as well. During its existence, Negro Fort was a powerful symbol of black freedom that subverted the racist foundations of an expanding American slave society. Its destruction reinforced the nation’s growing commitment to slavery, while illuminating the extent to which ambivalence over the institution had disappeared since the nation’s founding. Indeed, four decades after declaring that all men were created equal, the United States destroyed a fugitive slave community in a foreign territory for the first and only time in its history, which accelerated America’s transformation into a white republic. The Battle of Negro Fort places the violent expansion of slavery where it belongs, at the center of the history of the early American republic.
The Great Valley Road of Virginia chronicles the story of one of America’s oldest, most historic, and most geographically significant roads. Emphasized throughout the chapters is a concern for landscape character and the connection of the land to the people who traveled the road and to permanent residents, who depended upon it for their livelihoods. Also included are chapters about the towns supported by the road as well as the relationship of physical geography (the lay of the land) to the engineering of the road. More than one hundred maps, photographs, engravings, and line drawings enhance the book’s value to scholars and general readers alike. Published in association with the Center for American Places
- Author : William C. Sturtevant
- Publisher : Smithsonian Inst Scholarly Press
- Release Date : 1978
- Genre : History
- Pages : 577
- ISBN : MINN:31951D027321393
Encyclopedic summary of prehistory, history, cultures and political and social aspects of native peoples.
This informative series gives access to Pulitzer Prize-winning material and a comprehensive, systematic listing of materials and select reprints. Each volume is devoted to one prize category. Chronological coverage includes analyses, provided by the prize administration, of the factors behind awarding each prize.
The first history of Indian slavery in the Mississippi Valley during the colonial era. Based almost entirely on original source documents from the United States, France, and Spain, Carl J. Ekberg's Stealing Indian Women provides a novel overview of Indian slavery in the Mississippi Valley. His detailed study of a fascinating and convoluted criminal case involving various slave women and a mtis (mixed-blood) woodsman named Cladon illuminates race and gender relations, Creole culture, and the lives of Indian slaves--particularly women--in ways never before possible.
- Author : Gregory Fremont-Barnes
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2006
- Genre : United States
- Pages : 1777
- ISBN : UCSC:32106019038188
Contains entries that provide information on topics related to the American Revolution, covering politics, people, warfare, and culture; arranged alphabetically from E to L, with maps and illustrations.
- Author : Carole A. Barrett
- Publisher : Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press
- Release Date : 2003
- Genre : History
- Pages : 819
- ISBN : 1587650681
Surveys Native American history from ancient times to the twentieth century. Entries cover specific topics and incidents from a Native American perspective, including categories such as court cases and legal decisions, wars and battles, reservations and relocation, organizations, religion and missionary activities, national government and legislation, native government, treaties, and protest movements.